国民年金

国民年金(こくみんねんきん) is National Pension of Japan. It is a 公的(こうてき)年金 (complusory). 公的年金 has 3 levels. The bottom foundation is 基礎年金, which is a fixed amount according to your income range, if you are <= 20 years < 60 old! The 2nd level is 国民年金. Everyone who is a resident in Japan needs to enroll in National Pension.

People enroll in National Pension divided into 3 groups.

第1号被保険者

Group 1 insured person.

Qualification: Live in Japan 20 <= years < 60 old. Not a
第2号被保険者(ひほけんしゃ) or 第3号被保険者(ひほけんしゃ).
Examples: Self-employed, farmer, students, jobless, who is not on 厚生年金.

Pays a fixed amount of ¥16540 as of 2020.

第2号被保険者

Group 2 insured person.

Qualification: 厚生年金第1号被保険者
Example: employees of a company.

Qualification: 第2-4号厚生年金被保険者
Example: government worker

Pays a fixed amount of 18.3% according to your monthly salary range. Or

第3号被保険者

Group 3 insured person.

Qualification: Dependant of 第2号被保険者.
Example: A working wife (第2号被保険者)’s home husband.

Pays nothing. Already covered by your dependant (wife’s 厚生年金).

Roughly you can think of:

If you are not employed => 第 1 号被保険者.
If you are employed => 第 2 号被保険者.
If you are a dependant of 第 2 号 => 第 3 号被保険者.

Foreigner Leaving Japan

If you paid National Pension for more than 6 months, you can apply to get some pension back (脱退一時金) within 2 years of your visa expiry date.

Amount of money you can get back:

If you paid 6 <= months < 12, ¥49230.
If you paid 12 <= months < 18, ¥98460.
If you paid 18 <= months < 24, ¥147690.
If you paid 24 <= months < 30, ¥196920.
If you paid 30 <= months < 36, ¥246150.
If you paid more than 36 months, ¥295810.

Payment Methods

Payment Method Monthly 6 month at once 1 year at once
by Cash ¥16540 ¥98430 ¥194960
口座振替 ¥16490 ¥98110 ¥194320

Vocabs

口座(こうざ)振替(ふりかえ)
Deducted from your bank account. (口座から引き落とし)

被保険者(ひほけんしゃ)
insured person

Terms around pension: https://www.nenkin.go.jp/yougo/index.html